New to Medical Cannabis? You're not sure what CBD is? If you have anyone you know that would like this education, please feel free to pass it on!! Here is a short video on CBD, which stands for Cannabidiol, one of the many medicinal components of the cannabis plant and a major cannabinoid. Dr. Bonni Goldstein, Weedmaps and SC Labs put this together...good info!
Here is a massive research article that has been put together by Haydar of Herbonaut.com.
He talks about 61 benefits of marijuana all of which are supported by scientific research.
Check it out if you need more convincing!
The natural occurring compounds found in plants are called phytochemicals and have been extracted using ethyl alcohol for use as medicinal remedies for a long, long time. The ingredients in plants are highly soluble in alcohol and easily extracted, however cannabinoids are only significantly soluble in more concentrated ethanol solutions greater than 75% (150 proof) but ideally 190 proof should be used. With the 190 proof ethanol the cannabinoids, terpenoids, flavonoids and other essential oils will be easily extracted.
Tinctures made with alcohol are generally better preserved than other types of tinctures due to the antibacterial nature of alcohol. They can have a shelf life of 2-5 years. They tend to be more stable and reliable over a long period of time with or without refrigeration. Another plus with using ethanol in our tinctures is that the alcohol when taken orally permeates the mucus membranes of the mouth and is delivered into the bloodstream. This is a much quicker delivery system than taking an edible and waiting for the digestive system and liver to break it down, which can be 1.5-2 hours later.
Terpenoids, sometimes called Terpenes are naturally occurring essential oils that are found in the cannabis plant, but also in other areas of nature such as trees, plants, flowers. Terpenes give plants its particular odor and flavor. How many terpenoids are found in the cannabis plant? According to Dr. Bonni Goldstein in her book "Cannabis Revealed" there are over 200 terpenoids in cannabis alone! Below she says some important facts about terpenoids:
* They are genetically controlled
*Production increases with light exposure
*Production decreases as soil fertility decreases
*U.S. FDA recognizes Terpenoids as safe
*Terpenoids vaporize near the same temperature as THC
*Concentrating cannabis into hash or wax may reduce the terpenes content and may cause medicinal effects to change
*Terpenoid lab analysis is the only way to know about a certain product's terpenoid levels.
Each terpene has its own effect. So for example the terpene "Limonene" is found in lemons and other citrus fruits. It it known to have powerful anti-depressant and anti-anxiety effects as well as anti-tumor. Some other terpene effects are: anti-bacterial, Bronchodilator, anti-convulsant, sedating, anti-cancer, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory and the list goes on!
Phytocannabinoids and terpenoids work synergistically to provide therapeutic effects and the terpenoids work synergistic with each other enchancing medicinal effects. Below is a page from Steep Hill Labs showing the terpenoids that they test for in cannabis and the relating effects of each one. Nature is truly amazing!!
This short section was taken from Dr. Bonni Goldstein's book"Cannabis Revealed". Dr. Goldstein M.D. specializes in cannabis medicine and has treated thousands of adult and pediatric patients with cannabis. Although she has a long waiting list, I encourage people to pick up a copy of her book which is very easy to read and has great information!
"In 2003, Dr. Ethan Russo, a board certified neurologist and psychopharmacology researcher, posed an excellent question in a scientific paper, asking if a deficiency of endocannabinoids - the compounds that are made on demand in our brains and bodies to maintain homeostasis - can lead to disease. He hypothesized that having lower levels of these compounds, which would diminish the ability to maintain homeostasis, may lead to medical conditions such as migraine headaches, fibromyalgia, IBS and other "treatment resistant" conditions. He reported that many patients with these conditions who used cannabis medicine had improvement of their symptoms.
Since that article was published, there have been numerous scientific studies that demonstrate that an impairment or dysfunction of the endocannabinoid system can be the cause of significant and difficult to treat medical conditions. This deficiency may be genetically determined, meaning you are born with it, while others may develop it later in life. Chronic stress, poor diet, and chronic pain hae all been shown to negatively impact endocannabinoid system functioning and can lead to endocannabinoid dysfunction.
Medical conditions that have been shown to result from endocannabinoid system dysfunction include:
*Fibromyalgia/Myofascial Pain Syndrome
*Irritable Bowel Syndrome
*Failure to thrive in newborns
*Complex regional pain syndrome
*Anxiety and depression
Whether you are a recreational or a medicinal cannabis user, you must have asked yourself this question at least once: what’s the difference between THC or CBD and which ratio should I go for when buying marijuana?
Both of these substances have their own benefits on our body and mind, always complementing each other.
Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and Cannabidiol (CBD) are cannabinoids, the two most prevalent chemicals in marijuana and the ones responsible for its popularity. There are more than 100 cannabinoids found in our favorite herb, but these two have been studied the most for their medical benefits.
These chemicals have a very positive impact on the human body — a group of cellular receptors and transmitters forms our very own cannabinoid system, which is in turn responsible for regulating hundreds of different bodily processes, including pain regulation, appetite, mood and many more.
Today we’re checking out an infographic from Greencamp which provides all the information about these two cannabinoids you will ever need, as well as a quick THC:CBD ratio guide that you can use to make better smoking decisions. So, let’s take a look at all the differences between these two mind blowing cannabis chemicals.
It doesn’t get you high, but it’s causing quite a buzz among medical scientists and patients. The past year has seen a surge of interest in cannabidiol (CBD), a non-intoxicating cannabis compound with significant therapeutic properties. Numerous commercial start-ups and internet retailers have jumped on the CBD bandwagon, touting CBD derived from industrial hemp as the next big thing, a miracle oil that can shrink tumors, quell seizures, and ease chronic pain—without making people feel “stoned.” But along with a growing awareness of cannabidiol as a potential health aid there has been a proliferation of misconceptions about CBD.Read More
So far the most studied cannabinoids from the cannabis plant are CBD(cannabidiol) and THC(delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) What are phytocannabinoids? They are the group of chemical compounds that are specifically found in the cannabis plant. There are over 400 chemical compounds in this special plant and when you are using cannabis you are getting a mixture of all of these natural compounds that work together to balance each other. I wanted to list the benefits of both CBD and THC to give you an idea of the main effects they have on the body. The following lists are from Dr. Bonni Goldstein's new book, Cannabis Revealed, a book I would highly recommend reading as it has science, how to use cannabis, dosing and patient stories...a well rounded book!
- NOT psychoactive - no "high" effects
- Alerting in low doses
- Reduces pain
- Relaxes muscle spasms
- Potent anti-inflammatory
- Stops nausea/vomiting
- Reduces anxiety & depression
- Counters psychotic thoughts
- Anti-tumor effects
- Reduces pain
- Reduces/stops nausea/vomiting
- Stimulates appetite
- Induces sleep
- Reduces anxiety & depression
- Reduces intraocular eye pressure
- Anti-tumor effects
When CBD and THC are used independent of each other, many people of have found relief from a variety of ailments, but when they are used together, it is called "The Entourage Effect", meaning that the cannabinoids work better together than isolated from one another...an example that Dr. Goldstein gives in her book is both THC and CBD when taken separately, have pain relieving properties but there are studies that show CBD enhances pain relief when used together with THC, compared to using THC by itself.
I have had a few members that have been a bit frustrated when they didn't get the relief they wanted from chronic pain issues, but after they added a small amount of THC, the results were much better! If you keep the CBD dose higher than the THC many people do not get the "high" or psychoactive effects but still get the medicinal effects. Finding the right dose and the right combination for you does take a little time, so have fun and experiment with it!
The following article is from the online website called Leafly.com, it did not list the author but I think it is a very important topic as so many military personnel have had these issues. We must not forget other jobs that entail stress such as first responders, law enforcement, firefighters to name a few. They are in stressful and sometimes traumatic situations on a daily basis and not only take physical assaults, but also mental ones. Although the underlying trauma needs to be addressed, cannabis has showed great promise that these individuals affected can at least cope and carry on their daily living and have better control over their lives.
For those Veteran's that live in the SF Bay Area and want to learn more about cannabis for PTSD, please visit the Veterans Cannabis Group for more information.
Here is the article:
CANNABIS & POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER (PTSD)
Throughout its prohibition, cannabis has been considered a self-medicated “coping” drug, especially in individuals with anxiety disorders like post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD. Government funded studies examining the link between cannabis and PTSD frequently use the term “marijuana abuse disorder,” a co-occurring problem in need of rehabilitation.
There is overwhelming evidence that PTSD and cannabis go hand-in-hand. But while most studies point out the prevalence of marijuana abuse among PTSD patients, a minority of emerging research is looking at the question in reverse: could cannabis be effectively treating PTSD?
Living with PTSD
PTSD, or post-traumatic stress disorder, is an anxiety condition caused by disturbing episodes, such as military combat or sexual assault. Three classes of symptoms characterize PTSD: re-experiencing, avoidance, and hyper arousal (e.g., flashbacks, social isolation, insomnia). The persistence of PTSD over time is attributed to changes in brain chemistry that occur at the time of the trauma, when adrenaline and stress hormones are hyper-responsive.
Since age nine, Ben Nichols has experienced debilitating PTSD symptoms, and with it came a tangle of other issues like insomnia and ADD. Ben takes Adderall to help with concentration difficulties caused by PTSD, but turns to cannabis to treat the anxiety.
“It helps with daily tasks like school, work, and relationships,” Ben said. “My mind races and cannabis helps me slow down and think through the trauma rather than hide from it. I can tell it's helping me because my sleeping patterns are normal and I don't have anxiety attacks.”
Ben is fortunate to live in a state with legal medical cannabis, but not all PTSD sufferers have access to its unprecedented relief. Combat veterans have an especially high propensity for PTSD, and statistics show that about 1 in 5 military personnel deployed in Iraq and Afghanistan experience it. Given cannabis’ federally prohibited status, veterans are instead steered toward antidepressants and antipsychotics, medications that have had very little success in treating severe PTSD symptoms.
“The drugs that they were giving them … they couldn’t get up in the mornings,” said Army first sergeant Gregory Westbrook. “Most of the guys weren’t the type of soldiers who had issues before Iraq or even in Iraq, but they bring them back and put them on these drugs, and they’re falling asleep in the chair. There was no way they could function, especially in a civilian job. So maybe marijuana is an alternative.”
How Cannabis Can Help Treat PTSD
Currently there are no specialized, effective medications available for PTSD patients, but with new discoveries in our body’s therapeutic hotspot -- the endocannabinoid system -- research is beginning to pave new avenues of understanding and treating PTSD.
One investigator of PTSD and cannabis is the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS). Martin Lee is a MAPS affiliate and director of Project CBD, and has studied PTSD and cannabinoids in depth.
“Researchers found that people with PTSD had lower levels of anandamide, an endogenous cannabinoid compound, compared to those who did not show signs of PTSD,” Lee wrote, “Innate to all mammals, anandamide (our inner cannabis, so to speak) triggers the same receptors that are activated by THC and other components of the marijuana plant.”
In other words, one pillar of PTSD is an endocannabinoid deficiency: the body stops producing enough endocannabinoids to fill receptor sites, and this is where the cannabinoids found in marijuana play a therapeutic role. By replenishing these missing endocannabinoids with those found in cannabis, researchers think marijuana pharmaceuticals might bring PTSD patients relief from their memories.
“Scientists have determined that normal CB-1 receptor signaling deactivates traumatic memories and endows it with the gift of forgetting,” Lee said, “But skewed CB-1 signaling, due to endocannabinoid deficits (low serum levels of anandamide), results in impaired fear extinction, aversive memory consolidation, and chronic anxiety, the hallmarks of PTSD.”
Accessing Medical Marijuana for PTSD
PTSD patients are advised to first consult a medical professional before treating symptoms with cannabis. Consumers unaccustomed to marijuana may find that THC aggravates anxiety symptoms. Cannabidiol, better known as CBD, is a marijuana cannabinoid that counteracts some of THC’s effects, including paranoia and anxiety. Further research examining the relationship between THC and CBD could lead to more tolerable variants of cannabis pharmaceuticals for high anxiety individuals.
The damage caused by PTSD cannot be fully unraveled by any medication, but for some, cannabis provides respite when nothing else can. Despite a strong need for development of more effective medication without adverse side effects, the promising pharmaceutical possibilities in cannabis are continually dismissed by government-backed research organizations. However, forward momentum builds as education about cannabis’ healing properties spreads.